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Istanbul does not have a primary urban park, but it has several green areas. Emirgan Park is known for its diversity of plants and an annual tulip festival is held there since Popular during the summer among Istanbulites is Belgrad Forest , spreading across 5, hectares 14, acres at the northern edge of the city.
The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive.
Istanbul is primarily known for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, but its buildings reflect the various peoples and empires that have previously ruled the city.
Examples of Genoese and Roman architecture remain visible in Istanbul alongside their Ottoman counterparts. Nothing of the architecture of the classical Greek period has survived, but Roman architecture has proved to be more durable.
The obelisk erected by Theodosius in the Hippodrome of Constantinople is still visible in Sultanahmet Square, and a section of the Valens Aqueduct , constructed in the late 4th century, stands relatively intact at the western edge of the Fatih district.
Early Byzantine architecture followed the classical Roman model of domes and arches, but improved upon these elements, as in the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus.
The oldest surviving Byzantine church in Istanbul—albeit in ruins—is the Monastery of Stoudios later converted into the Imrahor Mosque , which was built in The pinnacle of Byzantine architecture, and one of Istanbul's most iconic structures, is the Hagia Sophia.
In the following centuries, and especially after the Tanzimat reforms, Ottoman architecture was supplanted by European styles.
Since , the municipal boundaries of Istanbul have been coincident with the boundaries of its province. The current city structure can be traced back to the Tanzimat period of reform in the 19th century, before which Islamic judges and imams led the city under the auspices of the Grand Vizier.
Following the model of French cities, this religious system was replaced by a mayor and a citywide council composed of representatives of the confessional groups millet across the city.
Small settlements adjacent to major population centers in Turkey, including Istanbul, were merged into their respective primary cities during the early s, resulting in metropolitan municipalities.
The Municipal Council is responsible for citywide issues, including managing the budget, maintaining civic infrastructure, and overseeing museums and major cultural centers.
District councils are chiefly responsible for waste management and construction projects within their respective districts. They each maintain their own budgets, although the metropolitan mayor reserves the right to review district decisions.
One-fifth of all district council members, including the district mayors, also represent their districts in the Municipal Council. With the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Istanbul Province having equivalent jurisdictions, few responsibilities remain for the provincial government.
Mirroring the executive committee at the municipal level, the Provincial Executive Committee includes a secretary-general and leaders of departments that advise the Provincial Parliament.
Throughout most of its history, Istanbul has ranked among the largest cities in the world. By CE, Constantinople had somewhere between , and , people, edging out its predecessor, Rome, for world's largest city.
It never returned to being the world's largest, but remained Europe's largest city from to , when it was surpassed by London.
The Turkish Statistical Institute estimates that the population of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality was 14,, at the end of , hosting 19 percent of the country's population.
Today, it forms one of the largest urban agglomerations in Europe , alongside Moscow. The high population growth mirrors an urbanization trend across the country, as the second and third fastest-growing OECD metropolises are the Turkish cities of İzmir and Ankara.
Istanbul experienced especially rapid growth during the second half of the 20th century, with its population increasing tenfold between and The number of residents of Istanbul originating from seven northern and eastern provinces is greater than the populations of their entire respective provinces; Sivas and Kastamonu each account for more than half a million residents of Istanbul.
Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city throughout much of its history, but it has become more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman Empire.
The vast majority of people across Turkey, and in Istanbul, are Muslim , and more specifically members of the Sunni branch of Islam. Almost , new immigrants, many of them from Turkey's own villages, continue to arrive each year.
As a result, the city constant change, constantly reshaped to achieve the needs of these new population. The Patriarch of Constantinople has been designated Ecumenical Patriarch since the sixth century, and has come to be regarded as the leader of the world's million Orthodox Christians.
At the start of the 21st century, Istanbul's Greek population numbered 2, down from a peak of , in The largest ethnic minority in Istanbul is the Kurdish community, originating from eastern and southeastern Turkey.
Although the Kurdish presence in the city dates back to the early Ottoman period,  the influx of Kurds into the city has accelerated since the beginning of the Kurdish—Turkish conflict in the late s.
The neighborhood of Balat used to be home to a sizable Sephardi Jewish community, first formed after their expulsion from Spain in There are Nigerian, Congolese and Cameroonian communities present.
Politically, Istanbul is seen as the most important administrative region in Turkey. Historically, Istanbul has voted for the winning party in general elections since The left-wing pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party HDP is the city's third largest political force due to a substantial number of Kurdish people migrating from south-eastern Turkey.
More recently, Istanbul and many of Turkey's metropolitan cities are following a trend away from the government and their right-wing ideology.
In and , large-scale anti-AKP government protests began in İstanbul and spread throughout the nation. The first government defeat in Istanbul occurred in the constitutional referendum , where Istanbul voted 'No' by The AKP government had supported a 'Yes' vote and won the vote nationally due to high support in rural parts of the country.
Similar trends and electoral successes for the opposition were also replicated in Ankara , Izmir , Antalya , Mersin , Adana and other metropolitan areas of Turkey.
Administratively, Istanbul is divided into 39 districts, more than any other province in Turkey. For the purpose of parliamentary elections, Istanbul is divided into three electoral districts ; two on the European side and one on the Asian side , electing 28, 35 and 35 MPs respectively.
Ranking 11th by GDP among the world's urban areas in , Istanbul is responsible for 30 percent  of the country's industrial output, 31 percent  of GDP, and 47 percent of tax revenues.
Istanbul, which straddles the strait Bosporus , houses international ports that link Asia and Europe. Istanbul has been an international banking hub since the s,  and is home to the only stock exchange in Turkey.
Borsa Istanbul was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in Istanbul was historically known as a cultural hub, but its cultural scene stagnated after the Turkish Republic shifted its focus toward Ankara.
By the end of the 19th century, Istanbul had established itself as a regional artistic center, with Turkish, European, and Middle Eastern artists flocking to the city.
Despite efforts to make Ankara Turkey's cultural heart, Istanbul had the country's primary institution of art until the s.
Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and around the world in With its focus now solely on music and dance, the Istanbul Festival has been known as the Istanbul International Music Festival since Istanbul has numerous shopping centers , from the historic to the modern.
The Grand Bazaar , in operation since , is among the world's oldest and largest covered markets. Galleria Ataköy ushered in the age of modern shopping malls in Turkey when it opened in Akmerkez was awarded the titles of "Europe's best" and "World's best" shopping mall by the International Council of Shopping Centers in and ; Istanbul Cevahir has been one of the continent's largest since opening in ; Kanyon won the Cityscape Architectural Review Award in the Commercial Built category in Istanbul is known for its historic seafood restaurants.
Because of their restaurants, historic summer mansions, and tranquil, car-free streets, the Prince Islands are a popular vacation destination among Istanbulites and foreign tourists.
Following the influx of immigrants from southeastern and eastern Turkey, which began in the s, the foodscape of the city has drastically changed by the end of the century; with influences of Middle Eastern cuisine such as kebab taking an important place in the food scene.
Istanbul has active nightlife and historic taverns , a signature characteristic of the city for centuries if not millennia.
Istanbul is home to some of Turkey's oldest sports clubs. Many of Istanbul's sports facilities have been built or upgraded since to bolster the city's bids for the Summer Olympic Games.
Atatürk Olympic Stadium , the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey, was completed in as an IAAF first-class venue for track and field.
Istanbul was occasionally a venue of the F1 Powerboat World Championship , with the last race on the Bosphorus strait on 12—13 August Most state-run radio and television stations are based in Ankara, but Istanbul is the primary hub of Turkish media.
The industry has its roots in the former Ottoman capital, where the first Turkish newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi Calendar of Affairs , was published in Istanbul now has a wide variety of periodicals.
Most nationwide newspapers are based in Istanbul, with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions. Several smaller newspapers, including popular publications like Cumhuriyet , Milliyet and Habertürk are also based in Istanbul.
Radio broadcasts in Istanbul date back to , when Turkey's first radio transmission came from atop the Central Post Office in Eminönü. Control of this transmission, and other radio stations established in the following decades, ultimately came under the state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation TRT , which held a monopoly on radio and television broadcasts between its founding in and Offering a range of content from educational programming to coverage of sporting events, Radio 2 is the most popular radio station in Turkey.
Among Turkey's first private stations, and the first featuring foreign popular music, was Istanbul's Metro FM The state-run Radio 3 , although based in Ankara, also features English-language popular music, and English-language news programming is provided on NTV Radyo There are 52 universities in Istanbul, 41 of which are private.
The oldest of the universities, Istanbul University , was founded in and later established law and medical schools in the 19th century.
In , there were about 4, schools , about half of which were primary schools ; on average, each school had students. It was built at the behest of Sultan Bayezid II , who sought to bring students with diverse backgrounds together as a means of strengthening his growing empire.
Galatasaray, for example, offers instruction in French; other Anatolian High Schools primarily teach in English or German alongside Turkish.
Istanbul's first water supply systems date back to the city's early history, when aqueducts such as the Valens Aqueduct deposited the water in the city's numerous cisterns.
By , the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the Ottoman Empire had been established. In , Istanbul had hospitals , of which were private.
Their prevalence has increased significantly over the last decade, as the percentage of outpatients using private hospitals increased from 6 percent to 23 percent between and The high quality of healthcare, especially in private hospitals, has contributed to a recent upsurge in medical tourism to Turkey with a 40 percent increase between and By the end of , the total length of Istanbul Province's toll motorways network otoyollar is km and highways network devlet yollari is km, totaling km of expressway roads minimum 2x2 lanes , excluding secondary roads and urban streets.
The O-2 continues west to Edirne and the O-4 continues east to Ankara. Environmentalist groups worry that the third bridge will endanger the remaining green areas to the north of Istanbul.
Istanbul's local public transportation system is a network of commuter trains , trams , funiculars , metro lines, buses, bus rapid transit , and ferries.
Fares across modes are integrated, using the contactless Istanbulkart , introduced in , or the older Akbil electronic ticket device.
Marmaray rail line has International rail service from Istanbul launched in , with a line between Bucharest and Istanbul's Sirkeci Terminal , which ultimately became famous as the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.
Istanbul's main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15, buses and , passengers , serving destinations as distant as Frankfurt.
Istanbul had three large international airports, two of which are currently in active service for commercial passenger flights. The largest is the new Istanbul Airport , opened in in the Arnavutköy district to the northwest of the city center, on the European side, near the Black Sea coast.
All scheduled commercial passenger flights were transferred from Istanbul Atatürk Airport to Istanbul Airport on April 6, , following the closure of Istanbul Atatürk Airport for scheduled passenger flights.
After its closure to commercial flights in , it was briefly used by cargo aircraft and the official state aircraft owned by the Turkish government, until the demolition of its runway began in It handled Dominated by low-cost carriers , Istanbul's second airport has rapidly become popular, especially since the opening of a new international terminal in ;  the airport handled Air pollution in Turkey is acute in İstanbul with cars, buses and taxis causing frequent urban smog ,  as it is one of the few European cities without a low-emission zone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Most populous city in Turkey. For other uses, see Istanbul disambiguation. Megacity in Marmara, Turkey.
Main article: Names of Istanbul. Main article: History of Istanbul. See also: Timeline of Istanbul history. Main article: Constantinople.
Two aerial photos showing the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, taken from a German zeppelin on 19 March Further information: Geography of Turkey and Geology of Turkey.
Main articles: List of districts of Istanbul and List of neighbourhoods of Istanbul. Main article: Demographics of Istanbul.
See also: Demographics of Turkey. This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: There are probably enough Arabs nowadays to be worth mentioning here.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. May Main article: Religion in Istanbul. İstanbul district Municipalities Turkish local elections.
Members of Parliament for İstanbul Turkish parliamentary election, Main article: Economy of Istanbul. Main article: Culture of Istanbul.
See also: List of sport facilities in Istanbul. Atatürk Olympic Stadium 2. Türk Telekom Stadium 3. Vodafone Park.
Further information: Education in Turkey. Main article: Utilities in Istanbul. Further information: Telecommunications in Turkey and Health care in Turkey.
Main article: Public transport in Istanbul. The suspension bridges on the Bosphorus strait. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge.
Istanbul's nostalgic and modern tram systems. Istanbul Atatürk Airport left , which handled Turkey portal Europe portal Asia portal. The most authoritative source on this figure ought to be the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality MMI , but the English version of its website suggests a few figures for this area.
One page states that "Each MM is sub-divided into District Municipalities "DM" of which there are 27 in Istanbul " [emphasis added] with a total area of 1, It also states a law merged the Eminönü district into the Fatih district a point that is not reflected in the previous source and increased the number of districts in Istanbul to Since Istanbul is a transcontinental city, Moscow is the largest city entirely within Europe.
Historians have disputed the precise year the city was founded. Commonly cited is the work of 5th-century-BCE historian Herodotus , which says the city was founded seventeen years after Chalcedon ,  which came into existence around BCE.
The ranges of values between and are due to Morris , which also does a comprehensive analysis of sources, including Chandler ; Morris notes that many of Chandler's estimates during that time seem too large for the city's size, and presents smaller estimates.
Chandler disagrees with Turan on the population of the city in the mids with the former suggesting , in , but Turan, p.
Turan's figures, as well as the figure,  come from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The drastic increase in population between and is largely due to an enlargement of the city's limits see the Administration section.
Explanations for population changes in pre-Republic times can be inferred from the History section. The whole city was generally known as Constantinople or under other names.
See Names of Istanbul for further information. The agglomeration "usually incorporates the population in a city or town plus that in the suburban areas lying outside of, but being adjacent to, the city boundaries".
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Land Istanbul ist ein Ort in Türkei. Sector Weitere Orte in der Nähe. Merter Keresteciler Türkei: Nachbarländer. MSK: Moscow Time. New York.
Hong Kong. Sommerzeit bzw. Los Angeles. Mexico City. Berlin , Frankfurt , Paris , Madrid , Rom.